Background and Aim: Rheumatic fever is still a common cause of acquired heart disease in children and young adult in many developing countries. The aim was to investigate the role of myocardial involvement in the hemodynamic changes in patients with acute rheumatic fever using cardiac troponin assay and echocardiography. Design: A prospective cohort study was designed. Patients and Methods: Thirty-four children with acute rheumatic fever, 20 with carditis, and 14 without carditis. Level of cardiac troponin T (cTnT) and echocardiographic measurement of left ventricular function were the main outcome measure. Results: The level of cardiac troponin in children with carditis was 0.051 ± 0.01 ng/dL, and it was 0.039 ± 0.02 ng/dL in those without carditis. The difference is not signifi cant. In addition, there was no signifi cant difference between the children with carditis and those without carditis regarding left ventricular ejection and shortening fractions. Conclusion: There are no signifi cant echocardiographic measurements abnormalities or cTnT levels elevation suggesting clinically relevant hemodynamic abnormalities due to myocardial involvement during acute rheumatic fever.
Key words: Acute rheumatic fever, cardiac troponin assay, echocardiography, myocardial involvement.