Objectives: The present cross-sectional study was aimed to investigate obesity measures, metabolic profiles, blood pressure, and intake of dietary fatty acids in rural women of Asian Indian origin. Materials and Methods: A total of 280 healthy rural women aged 25–65 years took part in the study. A random sampling procedure using a local voters’ registration list was followed to select the participants. All participants belonged to the Bengalee population and were inhabitants of the Bolpur-Santiniketan area, West Bengal, India. Anthropometric measures, namely, height, weight, circumferences of waist and hip, skinfolds at biceps, triceps, subscapular, and suprailiac regions, etc., were collected using standard techniques. Body mass index (BMI), percentages of body fat (PBFs), basal metabolic rate (BMR), and intra-abdominal visceral fat (IVF) were measured using an Omron body fat analyzer (Omron Corporation, Tokyo, Japan). Fat mass (FM), fat free mass (FFM), waist–hip ratio (WHR), and sum of four skinfolds (SF4) were also taken into consideration. Blood pressure and metabolic and hormonal profiles were measured using standard techniques. The weekly consumption (frequency) of food stuffs was collected using an already validated food frequency schedule. Results: The result showed that the mean age was 41.52 ± 10.95, BMI 23.07 ± 4.34, PBF 31.76 ± 7.06, BMR 1162.34 ± 139.59, WHR 0.83 ± 0.06, systolic blood pressure 118.84 ± 20.35, diastolic blood pressure 77.77 ± 12.12, total cholesterol 185.61 ± 25.19, triglyceride level 135.82 ± 30.39, high-density lipoprotein 48.13 ± 6.13, low-density lipoprotein 109.90 ± 22.53, fasting blood glucose 90.91 ± 7.98, and insulin 11.98 ± 3.42. The result also shows the mean intake of total protein to be 177.01 ± 47.79, total energy 8321.60 ± 1354.86, total fat 210.36 ± 53.57, total PUFA 82.02 ± 49.73, and total MUFA 94.01 ± 16.38. The percentile distribution of the dietary fat intake revealed that the 10th and 95th percentile values of the total protein intake were 125.3 and 261.5, total energy intake were 7491.6 and 10470.2, total fat intake were 178.8 and 273.5, total PUFA intake were 55.5 and 191.7, and of the total MUFA intake were 86.0 and 126.9, respectively. Conclusion: It seems reasonable to argue that dietary management including dietary guidelines across India is essential to retard the growing incidence of cardiovascular diseases in coming years.
Key words: Obesity, lipids, dietary fatty acids, cardiovascular diseases, Asian Indians