We are reporting the first case of spontaneous endocarditis caused by rapid grower non-tuberculous Mycobacterium chelonae in a case of rheumatic heart disease. The diagnosis was confirmed as there was repeated isolation of rapidly growing atypical Mycobacterium from blood culture which was identified as M. chelonae by Reverse line probe assay. The patient presented with pyrexia of unknown origin. Later she was found to have rheumatic heart disease with severe aortic regurgitation & large vegetation was seen attached to the aortic valve. She was treated with rifampicin, clarithromycin, amikacin & levofloxacin based on culture & sensitivity. She succumbed to her illness after development of large cerebral infarction due to embolization of vegetation from aortic valve.
Key words: Non-tuberculous mycobacteria, Aortic valve, Endocarditis, Mycobacterium chelonae, Rheumatic heart disease.